Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar, popularly known as Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, was an Indian polytheist, jurist, economist, politician, and social reformer. Ambedkar inspired the Dalit Buddhist movement and campaigned against social discrimination against untouchables (Dalits). The rights of workers, peasants, and women were also supported. He was the first Law and Justice Minister of independent India, the father of the Indian Constitution and the creator of the Republic of India. Ambedkar was a student of immense talent. He received doctoral degrees in economics from both Columbia University and the London School of Economics and also did research work in law, economics, and political science. He was an economics professor in the early part of professional life and also practiced and later life was more involved in political activities. Then Ambedkar became involved in publicity and discussions for the independence of India and was instrumental in publishing magazines, advocating political rights and advocating social freedom for Dalits and building India. In 1956, he embraced Buddhism. In 1990, he was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honor. His birth anniversary Ambedkar Jayanti is celebrated across India and around the world on 14 April. Ambedkar's legacy includes many monuments and depictions in popular culture.
Ambedkar was born on 14 April 1891 in the Mhow Nagar Military Camp, located in the Central India province of British India (now Madhya Pradesh). He was the 17th and last child of Ramji Maloji Sakpal and Bhimabai. His family was of Marathi mool, who believed in the Kabir Panth and was a resident of Ambadwe village in Ratnagiri district of present-day Maharashtra. He belonged to the Hindu Mahar caste, which was then called untouchable and due to this, he had to bear deep discrimination socially and economically. Bhimrao Ambedkar's ancestors had been serving in the British East India Company's army for a long time and his father, Ramji Sakpal, was serving in the Mahu cantonment of the Indian Army and while working here he rose to the rank of Subedar. He received formal education in Marathi and English.
Child Bhima was facing social resistance due to his caste. Despite being able to study in school, Bhimrao had to face many kinds of hardships due to untouchability. Ramji Ambedkar remarried from Jijabai in 1898. On 7 November 1900, Ramji Sakpal enrolled his son Bhimrao Bhiwa Ramji Ambedkar in the Government High School in Satara. Bhiwa was his childhood name. Ambedkar's original surname was written Ambedwekar instead of Sakpal, which was related to his village of Ambedway. As the people of the Konkan province kept their surname after the village name, hence the Ambedwekar surname was recorded from Ambedkar village of Ambedkar in the school. Later Krishna Devdev Ambedkar, a devrukhe Brahmin teacher who had a special affection for him, removed his name 'Ambedvekar' from his name and added his simple 'Ambedkar' surname.
Since then, he is known as Ambedkar to date.
Ramji moved to Bombay (now Mumbai) with the Sakpal family. In April 1906, when Bhimrao was about 15 years of age, he was married to Ramabai, a nine-year-old girl. Then he was studying the fifth English class. In those days child marriage was prevalent in India.
Ambedkar entered the first grade of English on 7 November 1900 at the Government High School (now Pratapsingh High School) located at Rajwara Chowk in Satara city. From this day onwards, his academic life started, so on November 7, Maharashtra is celebrated as Vidyarthi Divas. At that time he was called ‘Bhiwa’. At that time in the school, 'Bhiwa Ramji Ambedkar', his name was inscribed in the attendance register number 1914. When he passed the English fourth grade examination, because it was unusual among the untouchables, this success of Bhimrao was celebrated among the untouchables and in public function and was written by his family friend and writer Dada Keluskar himself. Biography of 'He was gifted. After reading this, he learned Gautam Buddha and Buddhism for the first time and was impressed by his education.
In 1897, Ambedkar's family moved to Mumbai where he studied further at the Government High School on Elphinstone Road.
Undergraduate study at Bombay University
Ambedkar as a student
Ambedkar passed his matriculation examination In 1907, and the following year he entered Elphinstone College, affiliated to Bombay University. He was the first person from his community to receive education at this level.
By 1912, he received a Bachelor of Arts (BA) in Economics and Political Science from Bombay University and worked with the Baroda State Government. His wife had just relocated to her new family and started work when she had to return to Mumbai to see her ailing father, who died on 2 February 1913.
Ambedkar at Columbia University
In 1913, Ambedkar moved to the United States at the age of 22 where he was given a three-year 11.50 to provide postgraduate education opportunities at Columbia University, New York City, under a scheme established by Sayajirao Gaekwad III (Gaikwad of Baroda). Dollar per month Baroda State Scholarship was awarded. Soon after arriving there he settled in Livingston Hall with Parsi friend Naval Bhatena. In June 1915, he passed his Master of Arts (MA) examination, with major subjects like Economics, and Sociology, History, Philosophy and Anthropology among other subjects. He presented research work on the subject of Ancient Indian Commerce (Ancient Indian Commerce) for post-graduation. In 1916, he was awarded a second art mastership for his second research work, the National Dividend of India - A Historic and Analytical Study, and eventually took the road to London. He received his Ph.D. in Economics for his third research work Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India in 1916, after publishing his research work, he was officially awarded Ph.D. in 1927. On 9 May, he presented a research paper called Castes in India: Their Systems, Origins, and Development, in a seminar organized by the anthropologist Alexander Goldenweiser, which was his first published paper. He used the scholarship he received for a period of 3 years to complete the course in the US in only two years and in 1916 he went to London.
Postgraduate studies at the London School of Economics
In October 1916, he moved to London and there he joined the Grays Inn for a barrister course (law studies), as well as the London School of Economics where he began working on a doctoral thesis of economics. In June 1917, he was forced to leave his studies temporarily and returned to India as his scholarship from the Baroda State had ended. On return, his book collection was sent on a separate ship from the ship which was submerged by the torpedo of the German submarine. This was the period of the First World War. He received permission to return to London for his thesis within four years. Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar was disappointed by the sudden discrimination in his life while working as the Army Secretary of Baroda State and quit his job to work as a personal tutor and accountant. He even started his consulting business which failed due to his social status. Due to his English lord, former Governor of Mumbai, Lord Sidneyam, he got a job as Professor of Political Economy at Mumbai's Sidneyam College of Commerce and Economics. In 1920, Shahu Maharaj of Kolhapur, with the help of his Parsi friend and some personal savings, was able to go back to England once again and in 1921 received a Master of Science (M.Sc. 4), for which he was' Provincial The Decentralization of Imperial Finance in British India (Provincial Decentralization of Imperial Economy in British India) was presented. In 1922, he was granted a barrister-at-law degree by Gray's Inn and was admitted to the British bar as a barrister. In 1923, he received the DSC (Doctor of Science) degree in Economics. His thesis was on "The Problem of the Rupee: Its Origin and Its Solution" (The Problem of Rupee: Its Origin and its Solution). After completing his studies in London and returning to India, Bhimrao Ambedkar stayed in Germany for three months, where he continued his economics studies at the University of Bonn. But due to lack of time, they could not stay more at the university. His third and fourth doctorates (LL.D., Columbia University, 1952 and D.L.T., Osmania University, 1953) were respected degrees.
Struggle against untouchability
Ambedkar said, "untouchability is worse than slavery". Ambedkar was educated by the princely state of Baroda and was therefore obliged to serve him. He was appointed the military secretary of Maharaja Gaekwad, but due to caste discrimination, he had to leave this job in no time. Subsequently, he made a re-attempt to find a living for his growing family, for which he worked as an accountant, and also as a private teacher, and established an investment consulting business, but all these efforts were then Failed when their customers learned that they were untouchables. In 1918, he became a professor of political economics at Sydenham College of Commerce and Economics in Mumbai. Although he was successful with the students, other professors objected to sharing the pot of drinking water with him
Ambedkar, as a prominent scholar of India, was invited to testify before the Southborough Committee, preparing the Government of India Act 1919. During this hearing, Ambedkar advocated a separate electorate and reservation for Dalits and other religious communities. In 1920, from Bombay, he began the publication of the weekly Mooknayak. This publication soon became popular among readers, when Ambedkar used it to criticize the reluctance of orthodox Hindu politicians and the Indian political community to fight caste discrimination. The speech was given during a conference of his Dalit class greatly influenced the local ruler of Kolhapur state Shahu IV, who had a meal in the conservative society with Ambedkar.
While practicing law in the Bombay High Court, he made efforts to promote and uplift the education of untouchables. Their first organized effort was the establishment of the Central Institute of Excluded Hitakarini Sabha, aimed at promoting education and socio-economic reform as well as the welfare of the "boycott" referred to as depressed classes. To protect Dalit rights, he took out five magazines such as Mooknayak, Bahishkrit Bharat, Samata, Enlightened India, and Janata.
In 1925, he was appointed to serve in the Simon Presidency with all European members in the Bombay Presidency Committee. Protests were held across India to protest against this commission. While its report was ignored by most Indians, Ambedkar sent a separate recommendation for future constitutional reforms.
Ambedkar organized a ceremony at the Koregaon Vijay Smarak (Jayastambha) on 1 January 1927 in honor of the Indian Mahar soldiers killed during the Battle of Koregaon on 1 January 1818 under the Second Anglo-Maratha War. Here the names of soldiers belonging to the Mahar community were carved on a marble inscription and made Koregaon a symbol of Dalit self-respect.
By 1927, Dr. Ambedkar decided to start a comprehensive and active movement against untouchability. He struggled to get untouchables the right to enter Hindu temples through public movements, satyagrahas, and processions, to open public resources of drinking water to all sections of society. He also launched a satyagraha in the city of Mahad to empower the untouchable community to take water from the city's Chavdar pond. At the end of the 1927 conference, Ambedkar ideologically justified caste discrimination and "untouchability", the ancient Hindu text, Manusmriti, whose many verses openly support caste discrimination and casteism, publicly condemned it, and formally copied the ancient text An burnt. On 25 December 1927, he burnt copies of Manusmriti under the leadership of thousands of followers. In its memory, Manusmriti Dahan Day is celebrated every year on 25 December by Ambedkarites and Hindu Dalits.
By now, Bhimrao Ambedkar had become the biggest untouchable political figure to date. He severely criticized the mainstream political parties for their perceived apathy towards the abolition of the caste system. Ambedkar also criticized the Indian National Congress and its leader Mahatma Gandhi, accusing them of presenting the untouchable community as an object of compassion. Ambedkar was also dissatisfied with the failures of British rule, he advocated a separate political identity for the untouchable community in which both Congress and British should not interfere. Ambedkar put his political vision in front of the world during the first round table conference on 8 August 1930 in London, according to which the protection of the exploited class is in its independence from both the government and the Congress.
We have to make our own way and ourselves… Political power cannot solve the problems of the exploited, their salvation lies in getting their rightful place in society. They have to change their bad way of living ... They must be educated ... A great need is to shake their sense of inferiority and to establish in them the divine dissatisfaction which is the source of all heights.
Ambedkar criticized the salt satyagraha run by the Congress and Gandhi. Due to the growing popularity and public support among his untouchable community, he was also invited to attend the second round table conference in London in 1931. There a heated debate with Gandhi over the issue of separate electorates for their untouchables and the British agreed with Dr. Ambedkar's views. Strongly opposed to giving separate electorates on the basis of religion and caste, Gandhi feared that separate electorates given to the untouchables would divide Hindu society. Gandhi felt that he should be given a period of few years for his conversion to forget untouchability to the Savarnas, but this argument was proved wrong when untouchability continued to be practiced by the Savarnas Hindus even decades after the Poona Pact.
In 1932, when the British agreed with Ambedkar's views, they announced separate electorates for the untouchables. The announcement of the Communal Award was the result of discussions at the Round Table Conference. Under this agreement, the Dalit class was given the right to two votes in a separate electorate, considering the demand for political representation raised by Ambedkar. Under this, Dalits could choose their representative by one vote and by another vote, there was freedom to choose a representative of general class. Thus the Dalit representative was to be elected only by the vote of the Dalits. With this provision, there was no longer any interference from the general class in choosing the Dalit representative. But at the same time, the Dalit class could play its role by using its second vote, choosing the representative of the general class. In such a situation, the Dalit candidate selected by the Dalits could have kept the problems of Dalits well, but it was not necessary for the non-candidate to try to solve their problems.
Gandhi was in the Yerwada jail of Poona at this time. As soon as the announcement of the communal award, Gandhi first wrote a letter to the Prime Minister and demanded that it be changed. But when he felt that his demand was not being implemented, he announced to observe a death fast. Then Ambedkar said that "If Gandhi had fasted for the independence of the country, it would have been good, but he has kept this fast in protest against the Dalit people, which is very regrettable. While Indian Christians. How many such people were born in India and went away. Ambedkar said that he cannot renounce the interests of Dalits to save Gandhi's life. Now Gandhi's health was continuously deteriorating due to death fast. Gandhi's life was in great distress. And the entire Hindu society became anti-Ambedkar.
Seeing the increasing pressure in the country, Ambedkar reached Yerwada jail at 5 pm on 24 September 1932. Here a compromise was reached between Gandhi and Ambedkar, later known as Poona Pact. In this agreement, Ambedkar announced to waive the right to separate electorate received by the Dalits in the Communal Award. But with this, instead of 78 reserved seats received from the Communal Award, the number of reserved seats in Poona Pact was increased to 148. Along with this, for the untouchables, the adequate amount was allocated in education grants in every province and ensured the recruitment of Dalit people without any discrimination from government jobs and in this way Ambedkar saved the life of Mahatma Gandhi. Ambedkar was indifferent to the deal, calling it a play played by Gandhi to press Gandhi's fast to deprive untouchables of their political rights and pressurize them to withdraw from their demands. In 1942, Ambedkar rejected this agreement, 'State of Minority' has also expressed Poona Pact's displeasure in this book. The Indian Republican Party has also held many meetings in the past.
Ambedkar's political career began in 1926 and until 1956 he held various positions in the political arena. In December 1926, the Governor of Bombay nominated him as a member of the Bombay Legislative Council; He took his duties seriously and often gave speeches on economic matters. He was a member of the Bombay Legislative Council till 1936.
On 13 October 1935, Ambedkar was appointed as the Principal of Government Law College and served in this post for two years. He also served as the President of the Governing Body of this college after the death of Shri Rai Kedarnath, the founder of Ramjas College, University of Delhi. Ambedkar settled in Bombay (now Mumbai), he built here a three-story big house 'Rajgriha', which had more than 50,000 books in his personal library, then it was the largest private library in the world. His wife Ramabai died after a long illness. Before his death, Ramabai wanted to go to Pandharpur for pilgrimage, but Ambedkar did not allow him to do it. Ambedkar said that in the Hindu pilgrimage where he is considered untouchable, there is no justification to go, instead, he made a matter of making a new Pandharpur for him.
In 1936, Ambedkar founded the Independent Labor Party, which won 13 seats in the 1937 Central Legislative Assembly elections. Ambedkar was elected as the MLA of the Bombay Legislative Assembly. He remained a member of the Legislative Assembly until 1942 and during this time he also served as the Leader of the Opposition in the Bombay Legislative Assembly.
In the same year, Ambedkar published his book 'Annihilation of Caste' (Destruction of Caste System) on 15 May 1936, based on a paper written in New York. In this book, Ambedkar strongly criticized Hindu religious leaders and the caste system. He strongly condemned the Congress' decision to call Gandhiji's words Harijan to the untouchable community. Later, in a 1955 BBC interview, he accused Gandhi of supporting the caste system in his Gujarati language papers and opposing the caste system in English language papers.
The All India Scheduled Castes Federation was a socio-political organization founded by Ambedkar in 1942 to campaign for the rights of the Dalit community. During the years 1942 to 1946, Ambedkar served on the Defense Advisory Committee and the Viceroy's Executive Council as Labor Minister.
Ambedkar actively participated in the freedom struggle of India.
Following the Lahore Resolution (1940) of the Muslim League demanding Pakistan, Ambedkar wrote a 400-page book titled "Thoughts on Pakistan, which analyzed the concept of" Pakistan "in all its aspects. Criticized the demand for a separate country for Pakistan, and also argued that Hindus should accept Pakistan from Muslims. Proposed that the provincial boundaries of Punjab and Bengal should be redrawn to separate Muslim and non-Muslim majority parts. He thought that Muslims could have no objection to the redrawing of provincial boundaries. .If they did, they could not quite "understand the nature of their demand". Scholar Venkat Dhalipal said that Thoughts on Pakistan had "for a decade Stopped the Third Politics ". It set the course of dialogue between the Muslim League and the Indian National Congress, paving the way for the partition of India. Although he was a staunch critic of Mohammed Ali Jinnah and the divisive communal strategy of the Muslim League. But he argued that Hindus and Muslims should be separated and Pakistan should be formed because the leadership of the same country To that end, ethnic nationalism will lead to more violence within the country. He referred to historical events such as the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire and Czechoslovakia in favor of his view of the communal divide between Hindus and Muslims. He asked whether sufficient reasons existed for the establishment of Pakistan? And suggested that differences between Hindus and Muslims might have been possible to eradicate even with a less drastic step. He has written that Pakistan should justify its existence. Communal issues have always been there even in countries like Canada, but even today the British and French live together, so can't Hindus and Muslims also live together. He warned that the actual implementation of the solution to create two countries would be extremely difficult. With the transfer of a large population, there will also be a problem of the border disputes. This prediction was correct keeping in mind the violence that followed the independence of India.
Proclamation of conversion
Baba Saheb Ambedkar made many efforts to improve Hindu religion and Hindu society, to achieve equality and respect while remaining under the Hindu religion for 10-12 years, but the heart of the upper-caste Hindus did not change. On the contrary, he was condemned and even called the destroyer of the Hindu religion. After that, he said that "We made every effort and satyagraha to achieve the level of equality in Hindu society, but all proved fruitless. There is no place for equality in Hindu society. "Hindu society said that" humans are for religion "while Ambedkar believed that" religions are for humans. There is no point in living in such a religion, which does not allow the followers of their own religion (untouchables) to get religious education, interrupt their jobs, insults them and even do not get water. Ambedkar did not declare any renunciation of Hinduism for any kind of enmity and destruction of Hinduism, but he decided it with some fundamental principles which were totally incompatible with Hinduism.
On 13 October 1935, while speaking at a conference in Yeola near Nashik, Ambedkar announced his conversion,
"Though I am born as an untouchable Hindu, I will never die as a Hindu!"
He also reiterated this in several public meetings across India. After the proclamation of this conversion, many Christian missionaries, from the Islamic religion of Hyderabad to the Nizam, also gave them the temptation of crores of rupees, but they rejected all. Of course, they also wanted the economic condition of the Dalit society should improve, but not by being dependent on the money, but by their hard work and organization. Apart from this, Ambedkar wanted to choose a religion whose center is man and morality, it should have freedom, equality, and fraternity. In any case, he did not want to adopt a religion that is riddled with apartheid and untouchability, nor did he want to choose a religion which has superstition and hypocrisy. In the 'Harijan' of March 21, 1936, Gandhi wrote, 'Since Dr. Ambedkar has thrown the bomb threat of the conversion of religion into Hindu society, every effort is being made to give him his determination.' This is where Gandhi Ji writes in one place, 'Yes, at this time (the upper caste) reformers need to grope their hearts. He should think that if he is saddened by the behavior of me or my neighbors, this is not being done. ... It is an accepted fact that the behavior of a large number of Hindus who call themselves Sanatani is such that the Harijans across the country suffer immense inconvenience and anger. The wonder is why so many Hindus gave up Hinduism, and why did not others also leave? It is only their admirable loyalty or superiority of Hindu religion that despite being so merciless in the name of that religion, millions of Harijans remain in it.
Ambedkar made a deep study of all the major religions of the world between 21 years after he declared his conversion. The main reason for him taking such a long time was that he wanted more and more followers to convert with him at the time he converted. Ambedkar loved Buddhism because it has a coordinated form of three principles which is not found in any other religion. Buddhism teaches wisdom (the use of wisdom in place of superstition and supernaturalism), compassion (love) and Samata (equality). He said that man wants these things for an auspicious and happy life. God and the soul cannot save society. According to Ambedkar, true religion is the one whose center is man and morality, based on science or intellectual element, not God, the center of religion, the liberation of soul and salvation. At the same time, he said that the work of religion should be to rebuild the world and not to explain its origin and end. He was in favor of a democratic social system because he believed that in such a situation religion can become the guide of human life. He got all these things in only Buddhism.
Despite bitter criticism from Gandhi and Congress, Ambedkar's reputation was that of a unique scholar and jurist, due to which, after the independence of India on 15 August 1947, a new Congress-led government came into existence, he gave Ambedkar the first law of the country and Invited to serve as Minister of Justice, which he accepted. On 29 August 1947, Ambedkar was appointed to the post of the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constitution for the creation of the new Constitution of independent India. In this work, Ambedkar's study of the early Buddhist Sangha customs and other Buddhist texts also came into use.
Ambedkar was a wise constitutional expert, having studied the constitutions of nearly 60 countries. Ambedkar is recognized as the "Father of the Constitution of India". In the Constituent Assembly, member of the drafting committee TT Krishnamachari said:
"Mr. Speaker, I am one of those people in the House who have listened to Dr. Ambedkar very carefully. I know about the work and enthusiasm in drafting this Constitution." At the same time, I feel that the drafting committee was not given the important attention we needed at this time for the purpose of drafting the constitution. The house is probably aware of seven members. The one nominated by you resigned from the House and was replaced. One had died and no one was replaced. One was in America and his place was not filled and another man was busy in the affairs of the state and to that extent avoid. One or two people were far away from Delhi and perhaps health reasons did not allow them to participate. Therefore, it finally happened that Dr. Ambedkar had to bear the entire burden of drafting this Constitution and I have no doubt that we are grateful to him. After receiving this work, I feel that it is undoubtedly praiseworthy. "
Most of the constitutional provisions of India have reached directly in an effort to promote this revolution either by advancing the purpose of social revolution or by setting the conditions necessary for its achievement.'
The text of the constitution drafted by Ambedkar provides constitutional guarantees and protections for individual citizens for a wide range of civil liberties, including freedom of religion, the abolition of untouchability, and violation of all forms of discrimination. He argued for macroeconomic and social rights for women, and the provision of reservation of jobs in civil services, schools and colleges for members of Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST) and Other Backward Classes (OBCs). The assembly won support for the launch, which was affirmative action. MPs from India hoped to eliminate socio-economic inequalities and lack of opportunities for India's depressed classes through these measures. Speaking after completing his work, Ambedkar said:
I feel that the Constitution is practicable, it is flexible but at the same time, it is so strong that it can keep the country at the time of both peace and war. In fact, I can say that if anything went wrong, it would not be because our constitution was bad but the person using it was inadequate.